Sapphires are among precious gemstones. They are among varieties of the mineral corundum (α-Al2O3). Pure and flawless corundum is colorless but presence of impurities can add different colors to it. In this regard, rubies are a variety of corundum with red color as a result of substitution of Al3+ cations by Cr3+ cations in the crystalline structure of corundum and sapphires are varieties of corundum with any color other than red (Pink colored corundum depending on parameters like intensity and locale may be considered either as ruby or as sapphire). Typical color of sapphires is blue due to presence of titanium and iron impurities together. Sapphires with naturally occurring colors other than blue like orange, yellow, green and purple are considered as fancy sapphires. It is also possible to have sapphires with two or more colors which are famous as parti sapphires.




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